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Oranges (Santra) and its benefits

 Oranges (Santra) and its benefits

Citrus sinensis
Sweet Oranges

A fruit called Orange

Orange is a citrus fruit which belong to the single genus called Citrus under the family Rutaceae. It is beleived that orange is native to China and its origin goes back to 314 BCE. Orange is usually 2 to 4 inches in diameters and contains  juicy, pulpy, sweet and aromatic fruit. Its shape is shperical to oblong depending on the varieties. The orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree which can grow up to 9-10 meters in height. It prefers tropical and sub-tropical climates. Its a non-climacteric fruit which means it does not get ripen after its harvest.
The grainy outer layer rind or peel ( Exocarp/ Flavedo) contains carotinoid which attribute to its colour and essential oils which attribute to its aroma. Just beneath the peel is a porour white spongy tissue called Mesocarp or Albedo. It contains flavonoids, D- limonine, limonine and pectin. These substances attribute to its flavour. And exocarp and mesocarp enclosed the endocarp which is the pulpy, juicy edible part. It is 80 percent of the fruit.
Orange contains around 10 distinct carpels seperated by membrane which contain numerous juice filled vesicles and 2 to 4 seeds. The fruit is dark green in colour when unripe and turn yellow or yellow with patches of green as it gets ripen. In warm areas its totally green even in ripe.

Types of Oranges

Orange belongs to the single family, Citrus under the family Rutaceae. Sweet Orange is a hybrid of Citrus Maxima (Pomelo) and Citrus Reticulate (Mandarin). The Citrus Senensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct charecteristics. They are common orange, blood or pigmented orange, nevel orange and acidless orange. 
Other citrus groups are 
Mandarin orange -     citrus reticulate
Bitter orange -            citrus aurantium
Bergamot orange -    citrus bergamia risso
Trifoliate orange-       poncitrus trifoliate

Sweet oranges
Ripe Oranges

Nutional Value
Nutritional value per 100 grams

Energy                         197 kJ                  
Carbohydrates 1.75 grams
Sugar  9.35 grams
Dietary fibre 2.4   grams
Fats 0.12 grams
Protein 0.94 grams
Vitamin A 11 µg
Thiamine B1 0.087 µg
Riboflavin B2 0.04 µg
Niacin B3 0.282 µg
Pentathenic Acid B5 0.25 µg
Vitamin B6 0.06 µg
Folate B9 30 µg
Choline  8.4 mg
Vitamin C 53.2 mg
Vitamin E 0.18 mg
Calcium  40 mg
Iron 0.1 mg
Magnesium 10 mg
Manganese 0.025 mg
Phosphorous 14 mg
Potassium 181 mg
Zinc 0.07 mg
Water 86.7 mg
Source USDA

How it is Consumed


It is consumed raw or as a juice. Orange juice can be prepare fresh at home. Various product of oranges are available at the store as orange juice, candies, cake etc. Preferably it is consumed raw as fiber content is higher than juice. Moreover orange peel is edible and it has high content of Vitamin C, fiber and polyphenols. It is used in dishes for its flavours. Also used in flavor drinks and manufacturing of perfumes.

Scientific classification of Orange

Kingdom                      Plantae                
Clade Tracheophytes
Clade                        Angiosperms
Clade Eudiocots
Clade  Rosids
Order Sapindales
Family Rutaceae
Sub-Family Aurantioideae
Tribe Citreae
Subtribe Citrinae
Genus Citrus L

Flavours
Orange is an aromatic, sweet, juicy and pulpy fruit. Its taste depend on the relative ratios of sugar and acids. Its aromatic flavour is from the volatile organic compounds present in it, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, terpenes and esters. These compounds tend to increase as the fruit gets ripe. Its acidity ranges from 2.9 to 4 ph.

Health Benefits

Skin Care
For ages, orange is favourites for beauticians because of its anti ageing nature. It can be used in various skin care products mainly facewash, cream etc. Face scrub can be prepared from its peel. Mix orange peel powder and yoghurt and apply it on face. Leave it for 15 minutes and wash off with cold water. Its recommemded by many beautician and it makes your skin glow. It can even cure blemishes and acne too.

Healthy Immune System
Oranges are known to have high content of vitamin-C which is a powerful natural antioxidant. It provides 64 % of daily value of vitamin-C per 100 grams serving. Consumption of orange boost immune sytem by keeping away from harmful microbes. It prevent and cure cold and flu and also known to reduce incidence of colon, lung and breast cancer. This antioxidant nutrilizes the free radicals present in the body which damages cell and alter DNA. Its also anti ageing.

Healthy Heart
Presence of vitamin B6 in the orange has also its health benefits. Vitamin B6 support production of haemoglobin and the magnesium present in orange maintain the blood pressure.

Hair Care
Oranges are known to have positive effects on hair. For having long, thick healthy hair vitamin B12 and E is very important which is present in oranges.

Check Blood Sugar
It control blood sugar level. The natural fruit sugar, fructose present in orange keep the blood sugar level checked. Thus, diabetic patient can consume as per knstruction given by the physician. However, it shoud be avoided to consume large quantity as it may lead to insulin spike which may lead to weight gain.

So, over all orange is a very good fruit indeed. Its regular intake is highly beneficial due to the presence of many essential minerals and vitamin. Although there are some drawbacks if one consume in large quantity as it may trigger bowel irritation, nausia, ulcers, blood sugar spike etc. But when we compare to its benefits and follow diet plan its more beneficial that its harmful effect. So guys follow regular diet plan which includes oranges.


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